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As of April 2012, 12.5 million Americans were unemployed and the domestic economy remained stagnant. While the U.S. economy struggles to pull itself out of a recession, perhaps taking a lesson from history, Congress has focused on small-business job creation as a means of stimulating the economy. The latest congressional scheme deregulates the capital markets to permit emerging growth companies (EGCs) greater access to investment funding, thereby fostering small-business growth, and ultimately creating more U.S. jobs in the process. Specifically, in 2012, Congress enacted the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS Act) to carry out its economic policy objectives. . . .
A criminal defendant’s motion to suppress often implicates the Fourth Amendment’s protections against “unreasonable searches and seizures.” Nevertheless, the extent to which government surveillance activities associated with wireless communication and location tracking technology fall within the ambit of the Fourth Amendment is unclear. In United States v. Graham, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland considered whether defendants’ Fourth Amendment rights were violated when the government acquired historical cell site location information (CSLI) without a search warrant. The court found that the defendants’ Fourth Amendment rights were not violated because they did not have a legitimate expectation of privacy—a requisite condition precedent to an unconstitutional search determination—in the CSLI at issue. . .